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1 Immigrant Population
Description | Specific Indicators | Corresponding Mandatory Objectives | Corresponding National Indicators | Data Sources | Survey Questions | Alternative Data Sources | Analysis Check List | Method of Calculation | Basic Categories | Indicator Comments | Cross-References to Other Sections | References

  • The percent of landed immigrants relative to the total non-institutional population. Recent immigrants are landed immigrants who have come to Canada in the last 5, 10 or 15 years relative to the total non-institutional population.

Specific Indicators

  • Immigrant Population
  • Recent Immigrant Population

Corresponding Mandatory Objectives

  • None

Corresponding National Indicators

Data Sources (see Resources: Data Sources)
Numerator & Denominator: Canadian Census
Original source: Statistics Canada
Distributed by:

  1. Health Planning Branch, Ontario MOHLTC
  2. Statistics Canada

Suggested citation (see Data Citation Notes):
[year] Census, Statistics Canada

Survey Questions
Question 11 from the 2001 Census: Is this person now, or has this person ever been, a landed immigrant?
Question 12 from the 2001 Census: In what year did this person first become a landed immigrant?
If exact year is not known, enter best estimate.

Alternative Data Sources

  • Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS)

Analysis Check List

  • None

Method of Calculation

landed immigrant population (LIP)
total non-institutional population (TNP)


Total Proportion of Immigrants:

landed immigrant population

x 100

total non-institutional population

Proportion of Recent Immigrants:

landed immigrant population within the past 5, 10 or 15 years (LIP
total non-institutional population (TNP)


landed immigrant population within the past 5, 10 or 15 years

x 100

total non-institutional population

Basic Categories

  • Total immigrants, recent immigrants in past 5 years, recent immigrants in past 10 years, recent immigrants in past 15 years
  • Geographic areas: health planning region, public health unit, district health council, census division, and census sub-division.

Indicator Comments

  • Data from 1981 onwards is based on a 20% sample of the non-institutional population.
  • The derivation of the immigrant population was slightly different in 1991, 1996, and 2001, compared with the 1981 and 1986 Censuses. In the 1981 and 1986 Censuses, the immigrant population was defined as people who were not Canadian citizens by birth. Since 1991, a direct question was used to identify the immigrant population because the census universe was expanded to include non-permanent residents. The change should not affect the comparability of immigration data from the 1981 and 1986 Censuses with later Censuses. (1)
  • A landed immigrant is defined as a person who is not a Canadian citizen by birth, but to whom Canadian immigration authorities have granted the right to live in Canada permanently. Landed immigrants must reside in Canada for a minimum of three years before they can apply for Canadian citizenship.
  • The percent of the population who are immigrants provides an indication of the degree to which the population is foreign-born independent of how long they have lived in Canada. Immigration period, age, ethnicity and mother tongue need to be considered with this indicator in order to provide meaningful interpretation.
  • The question on year of immigration is not clear for some respondents, who are not always sure whether they are being asked to state the year they arrived in Canada or the year they obtained immigrant status.
  • Children born in Canada to immigrant parents are considered to be non-immigrants (1).
  • Refugees, students, and those with work permits or Minister’s permits are not landed immigrants.

Cross-References to Other Sections

  • None


  1. Statistics Canada. 2001 Census Dictionary. Ottawa, ON: Ministry of Industry, 2002. Available from: URL:
  2. Boyd M, Vickers M. 100 years of immigration in Canada. Canadian Social Trends 2000;58:2-12.
  3. Thomas D. Evolving family living arrangements of Canada's immigrants. Canadian Social Trends 2001;61:16-22.
  4. Canada's Immigrants: Recent Trends. Canadian Social Trends 1993 Summer.


Date of Last Revision: May 18, 2006 .

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