Census of Canada
Original source: Statistics Canada
- Ontario Ministry of Health and Long Term Care (until 2006)
- Statistics Canada
Suggested citation (see Data Citation Notes): [year] Census, Statistics Canada
National Household Survey
Original Source: Statistics Canada
Distributed by: Statistics Canada http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/nhs-enm/index-eng.cfm
- Statistics Canada and the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-term Care provide aggregated Census information only. Various data and analytical Census products are available on Statistics Canada's website at http://www12.statcan.ca/census-recensement/index-eng.cfm. Aggregated information is also available through Statistics Canada community profiles http://www12.statcan.ca/census-recensement/2006/dp-pd/prof/92-591/index.cfm?Lang=E.
- National censuses have been conducted in Canada at 10-year intervals since 1851, except in the provinces of Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta, where they have been taken every five years since 19061 (p 461).
- The first census of Canada after Confederation was done in 1871. A nationwide census has been conducted in Canada every five years since 19711 (p 461). Self-enumeration was first introduced at this time1 (p 461).
- The Canadian Census enumerates Canadian citizens, landed immigrants and non-permanent residents who are living in Canada on the census day. Prior to 1991, with the exception of the 1941 Census year, only permanent residents were included in the Census: non-permanent residents were considered foreign residents and were not enumerated2 (p 72-6), 3. From 1991 on, the Census of Population has enumerated both permanent and non-permanent residents of Canada2 (p 72-6), 3. Non-permanent residents are people from another country who, at the time of the census, had a work or study permit or were a refugee claimant, as well as family members living with them in Canada, and in 1991, 1996 and 2001 censuses, persons who held a Minister's permit3, 4 (p 24).
- In censuses, some people are not counted (undercoverage) while others are counted more than once (overcoverage): The Census undercounts groups, such as the homeless, and aboriginal people on reserves. Young adults and those with two residences are subject to overcoverage or undercoverage error4 (p 28). These two types of errors result in net under-enumeration. The rate of net under-enumeration in Canada was 2.99% and 2.67% in 2001 and 2006 respectively, but rates varied based on demographic characteristics such as province/territory, sex and age group4 (p 10-16). Adjustments for this under-enumeration are made in the population estimates.
- The extent to which residents of Indian reserves and Indian settlements were enumerated in the 2001, 2006 and 2011 census varied5, 6. In some cases, enumeration was not permitted or was interrupted before it could be completed4 (p 111), 5. In other cases the quality of the enumeration was considered inadequate4 (p 111), 5. Model-based estimates for incompletely enumerated Indian reserves and Indian settlements can be found in the 2006 Census Reference Materials at http://www12.statcan.ca/census-recensement/2006/ref/notes/aboriginal-autochtones-eng.cfm5.
- In 2011, enumeration on some Indian reserves and Indian settlements was not completed due to natural event(s) (e.g. forest fires in Northern Ontario) and data collection for these communities was done at a later time6. While the data are not included in the 2011 Census tabulations, it is expected that separate special tables showing data for these communities will be made available as determined through data quality evaluation6. Appendix 1 of the 2011 Census Reference Materials provides a summary of incompletely enumerated Indian reserves and Indian settlements, showing enumeration status in 2001, 2006 and 20116.
- Differences in questionnaire content, the population universe and other methodological changes may affect comparability between census years. Refer to Appendix A of the 2006 Census Dictionary for a summary of Census questionnaire content and derived variables from 1971 through 20067.
- Until 2006, Statistic Canada collected detailed social and economic data from a sample of Canadian households using a mandatory long-form questionnaire. Since 1951, Statistics Canada sampled one in five households , except in 1971 and 1976 when one in three households were sampled1 (p 461).
- In 2011, most information previously collected by the mandatory long-form census questionnaire was collected as part of the new voluntary National Household Survey (NHS)8, 9. For differences between the two, please refer to the questionnaires9, 10.
- The Statistics Canada NHS sampling rate was one in three households. Statistics Canada has assumed a response rate of 50% for the voluntary NHS11. The NHS is voluntary and may be subject to non-response bias.
- Results from the NHS are scheduled for release beginning in May, 201312.
- Beginning in February 2012, all of Statistics Canada's Standard products are readily available on its website (including CANSIM data, census data and geography products) and are offered free of charge.
- Statistics Canada. 2006 Census Dictionary. Overview of the Census of Population. Chapter 1: A brief history. p 459 - 63. Ottawa, 2010. Catalogue no. 92-566-X. Available from: http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2006/ref/dict/pdf/92-566-eng.pdf
- Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care, Health Analytics Branch. Health Analyst's Toolkit: Census of Canada. Toronto, ON: Queen's Printer for Ontario. Available from: http://www.health.gov.on.ca/english/providers/pub/healthanalytics/health_toolkit/health_toolkit.pdf
- Statistics Canada [homepage on the Internet]. Ottawa: Statistics Canada. 2006 Community Profiles: Non-permanent residents and the census universe. 2010 Dec 06 [cited 2012 Oct 31]. Available from: http://www12.statcan.ca/census-recensement/2006/dp-pd/prof/92-591/help-aide/N01.cfm?Lang=E.
- Statistics Canada. 2006 Census Technical Report: Coverage. Ottawa, 2010. Catalogue no. 92-567-X. Available from: http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2006/ref/rp-guides/rp/coverage-couverture/pdf/92-567-X2006001-eng.pdf.
- Statistics Canada [homepage on the Internet]. Ottawa: Statistics Canada. Incompletely Enumerated Indian Reserves and Indian Settlements; 2008 Dec 24 [cited 2012 Oct 31]. Available from: http://www12.statcan.ca/census-recensement/2006/ref/notes/aboriginal-autochtones-eng.cfm.
- Statistics Canada [homepage on the Internet]. Ottawa: Statistics Canada. 2011 Census Reference Material: Appendix 1 "Incompletely enumerated Indian reserves and Indian settlements, showing enumeration status, 2006 and 2001 population counts". 2012 Feb 04 [2012 Oct 31]. Available from: http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2011/ref/irr-app-ann-1-eng.cfm.
- Statistics Canada [homepage on the Internet]. Ottawa: Statistics Canada. 2006 Census Dictionary. Appendix A: Census questionnaire content and derived variables since Confederation. 2010 Jun 14 [cited 2012 Oct 31]. Available from: http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2006/ref/dict/app-ann001-eng.cfm.
- Statistics Canada. Overview of the Census: Census Year 2011. Ottawa, 2011. Catalogue number: 98-302-XIE. Available from: http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2011/ref/overview-apercu/98-302-XIE.pdf.
- Statistics Canada [homepage on the Internet]. Ottawa: Statistics Canada. National Household Survey. 2012 Apr 13 [cited 2012 Oct 31]. Available from: http://www.statcan.gc.ca/survey-enquete/household-menages/5178-eng.htm.
- Statistics Canada [homepage on the Internet]. Ottawa: Statistics Canada. 2011 Census - Census questionnaires. Available from: http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2011/ref/about-apropos/questions_guides-eng.cfm
- Statistics Canada [homepage on the Internet]. Ottawa: Statistics Canada. National Household Survey: Data Quality. 2012 Apr 13 [cited 2012 Oct 31]. Available from: http://www.statcan.gc.ca/survey-enquete/household-menages/nhs-enm-eng.htm.
- Statistics Canada [homepage on the Internet]. Ottawa: Statistics Canada. National Household Survey: Release Schedule. 2012 Feb 03 [cited 2012 Oct 31]. Available from: http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/NHS-ENM/index-eng.cfm.